Bulk Offer GERMAN MANUFACTURED SOLAR PANELS
German solar panels:
BP 350 50 WP = 339,00 EURO/pcs. @ 20 peaces
SM50 50 WP = 318,00 EURO/pcs.@ 20 peaces
BP3125S 125 WP = 633,00 EURO/pcs.@ 20 peaces
SW 175 175 WP = 889,00 EURO/pcs.@ 20 peaces
Summary 43.580,00 EURO
Net ex works
The German photovoltaic industry
The sun delivers more energy to the earth in just one hour than is currently used worldwide in one year.
Technology and applications
The direct conversion of sunlight into electrical energy using solar cells is called photovoltaics. Up to now these cells have generally been made out of the semiconductor silicon. With the appropriate treatment, various layers are created that produce an electric field, which separates positive and negative charges as soon as light falls on the solar cells. The charges remain available for use at the two poles of the solar cell, as in the case of a battery. The solar-generated direct current can be used directly to power electrical equipment, or be stored in batteries. Alternatively, the electricity can be transformed into alternating current with an inverter and fed into the electricity grid. In order to create larger output units, many solar cells are combined and interconnected in a solar module.
Function diagram of a solar cell:
1) Negative electrode
2) Positive electrode
3) n-type silicon
4) p-type silicon
5) Boundary layer
Photovoltaic systems have a great advantage in that they can be operated anywhere, independently of the electricity grid. Connecting them to a battery turns them into stand-alone systems, in which the solar electricity is directly used or temporarily stored. If too little sunlight is available, e.g. at night, electricity can be drawn from the battery and used. Common applications of these systems are small solar home systems for lighting, or powering a radio or TV set, in individual buildings. However, stand-alone systems can also be installed to cover village electricity supplies, for example where several houses are connected via a small electricity network. In these cases, it makes sense to transform the solar-generated direct current into alternating current so that standard appliances can be operated. The inverter generates the alternating voltage and controls the electricity feed from the solar power system and, if required, from the batteries. It is also possible to integrate other energy sources, such as small wind turbines or hydropower plants, into systems of this type.
It is grid-connected systems, however, that are currently experiencing the strongest worldwide growth. Using inverters, solar electricity is transformed into grid-compliant alternating current and fed into the public mains grid.
Up to now, over 90 % of all solar cells have been made of crystalline silicon, which has proved itself over several decades. However, in future the market share of so-called thin-film cells will increase, as these can be manufactured at a lower cost. They are 200 times thinner, and thus save on material and energy costs. Thin-film solar cells are made of amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide or other special semiconductor materials, which are attached to a substrate material as thin films. They currently have a lower efficiency rating than crystalline cells, and require a larger installation surface in order to generate the same amount of electricity. All costs thus have to be taken into account when comparing cell types.
There has been investment in Germany in recent years both in state-of-the-art factories for manufacturing crystalline solar cells and modules, and in factories for manufacturing thin-film modules. More than 50 factories are producing all the pre-products, from silicon, ingots, wafers and solar cells, to solar modules, thin-film modules and inverters; and all to the highest quality.
Grid-connected photovoltaic systems exist in a wide range of output classes. Small-scale systems with a typical nominal output of 3 – 4 kWp are most often to be found on the roofs of private homes. Medium-sized systems, typically with 30 to 50 kWp, are often installed on the rooftops of factory, office and agricultural buildings, as well as on schools, town halls and other public buildings.
Solar power system installed at ground level
Large-scale systems with outputs of several megawatts are usually erected as ground mounted systems. The largest system currently under construction has an output of 40 MWp.
Photovoltaic elements can offer multiple uses and be integrated into buildings as sun protection, facade cladding or roof coverings. They also allow independent operation of many mobile applications such as calculators or measuring devices. In rural areas without grid access, solar modules supply reliable, environmentally-friendly energy to water pumps, telecommunications devices or street lamps, and are used to refrigerate medicines.
Market development in Germany and worldwide
A bright outlook: Thanks to effective promotional measures, there has been a significant increase in annual installed capacity of solar power systems in Germany.
Source: BSW (German Solar Industry Association)
The solar industry is booming. There are already around 1.3 million solar power systems in operation in Germany. In recent years, the German photovoltaics market and industry have seen strong growth. According to data from the German Solar Industry Association (BSW), 750 MWp of solar electricity systems were newly installed in 2006, as a result of which the solar electricity output totalled 2,500 MWp by the end of that year. The industry generated sales of around EUR 3.8 billion. The total capacity of solar cells produced in Germany in 2006 amounted to roughly 500 megawatts, equating to an annual growth of around 50 %. The industry expects another significant increase in sales figures, partly due to the addition of new global markets.
Solar module production in MWp – capacities of German manufacturers.
German solar firms are currently building large production sites at home and abroad in order to satisfy the globally expanding photovoltaics market. In 2007 and 2008 alone, 15 new solar factories will be created in Germany, along with up to 10,000 new jobs in the solar technology industry, including manufacturing, sales and installation.
In Germany, the market launch of photovoltaics is promoted by means of an attractive and calculable statutory framework. The Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) guarantees operators a fixed feed-in compensation for 20 years, making the investment secure and economically attractive. For a PV system of up to 30 kWp, installed on top of a building and commissioned in 2007, the operator receives 49.21 cents per kilowatt hour of solar electricity fed into the grid, for a period of 20 years. Systems commissioned in 2008 receive a 5 % lower tariff, based on the assumption that prices will also have decreased by 5 %. Due to the rapid technological development of components and production processes, and the massive expansion of the production and the market, the price of solar power systems sank by over 60 % between 1991 and 2003. After a temporary price increase due to a shortage of silicon, prices are now falling once more.
Solar power system in Berlin’s government district
Not only are the solar yields of photovoltaic systems increasing, the range of architectural applications is also getting wider. Solar power systems can be harmoniously integrated into buildings as part of the facade. It is therefore envisaged that solar technology will gain in popularity, with private and commercial developers, planners and architects, both as a decentralised energy source and as an element of construction and design. In the long term, a large proportion of Germany’s energy requirement will be covered by solar power systems. This will be the case to an even greater extent in countries with particularly high solar irradiation.