Water fired SINGLE-EFFECT chillers or chiller-heaters have cooling capacities of 10, 20 and 30 tons of refrigeration and produce chilled water for cooling or hot water for heating in comfort air conditioning applications. The absorption cycle is energized by a heat medium (hot water) at 158oF to 203oF from an industrial process, cogeneration system and the condenser is water cooled through a cooling tower.
The absorption chiller or chiller-heater uses a solution of lithium bromide and water, under a vacuum, as the working fluid. Water is the refrigerant and lithium bromide, a nontoxic salt, is the absorbent. Refrigerant, liberated by heat from the solution, produces a refrigerating effect in the evaporator when cooling water is circulated through the condenser and absorber.
When the heat medium inlet temperature exceeds 154.4oF, the solution pump forces dilute lithium bromide solution into the generator. The solution boils vigorously under a vacuum and droplets of concentrated solution are carried with refrigerant vapor to the primary separator. After separation, refrigerant vapor flows to the condenser and concentrated solution is precooled in the heat exchanger before flowing to the absorber.
In the condenser, refrigerant vapor is condensed on the surface of the cooling coil and latent heat, removed by the cooling water, is rejected to a cooling tower.
Refrigerant liquid accumulates in the condenser and then passes through an orifice into the evaporator.
In the evaporator, the refrigerant liquid is exposed to a substantially deeper vacuum than in the condenser due to the influence of the absorber. As refrigerant liquid flows over the surface of the evaporator coil it boils and removes heat, equivalent to the latent heat
of the refrigerant, from the chilled water circuit. The recirculating chilled water is cooled to 44.6oF and the refrigerant vapor is attracted to the absorber.
A deep vacuum in the absorber is maintained by the affinity of the concentrated solution from the generator with the refrigerant vapor formed in the evaporator. The refrigerant vapor is absorbed by the concentrated lithium bromide solution flowing across the surface of the absorber coil. Heat of condensation and dilution are removed by the cooling water and rejected to a cooling tower. The resulting dilute solution is preheated in a heat exchanger before returning to the generator where the cycle is repeated.